unfolding n : a developmental process; "the flowering of ante-bellum culture" [syn: flowering]
- present participle of unfold
In mathematics, an unfolding of a function is a certain family of functions.
Let M be a smooth manifold and consider a smooth mapping f : M \to \mathbb. Let us assume that for given x_0 \in M and y_0 \in \mathbb we have f(x_0) = y_0 . Let N be a smooth k-dimensional manifold, and consider the family of mapping (parameterised by N) given by F : M \times N \to \mathbb . We say that F is a k-parameter unfolding of f if F(x,0) = f(x) for all x. In other words the functions f : M \to \mathbb and F : M \times \ \to \mathbb are the same: the function f is contained in , or is unfolded by, the family F.
Let f : \mathbb^2 \to \mathbb be given by f(x,y) = x^2 + y^5. An example of an unfolding of f would be F : \mathbb^2 \times \mathbb^3 \to \mathbb given by
- F((x,y),(a,b,c)) = x^2 + y^5 + ay + by^2 + cy^3.
In application we require that the unfoldings have certain nice properties. \mathbbotice that f is a smooth mapping from M to \mathbb and so belongs to the function space C^(M,\mathbb). As we vary the parameters of the unfolding we get different elements of the function space. Thus, the unfolding induces a function \Phi : N \to C^(M,\mathbb). The space \mbox(M) \times \mbox(\mathbb), where \mbox(M) denotes the group of diffeomorphisms of M etc, acts on C^(M,\mathbb). The action is given by (\phi,\psi) \cdot f = \psi \circ f \circ \phi^. If g lies in the orbit of f under this action then there is a diffeomorphic change of coordinates in M and \mathbb which takes g to f (and vise versa). One nice property that we may like to impose is that
- \mbox(\Phi) \pitchfork \mbox(f)
There is an idea of a versal unfolding. Every versal unfolding has the property that \mbox(\Phi) \pitchfork \mbox(f) , but the converse is false. Let x_1,\ldots,x_n be local coordinates on M, and let \mathcal(x_1,\ldots,x_n) denote the ring of smooth functions. We define the Jacobian ideal of f, denoted by J_f as follows:
- J_f := \left\langle \frac, \ldots, \frac \right\rangle.
- \frac = \ \ .
- F((x,y),(a,b,c)) = x^2 + y^5 + ay + by^2 + cy^3
Sometimes unfoldings are called deformations, versal unfoldings are called versal deformations, etc.
An important object associated to an unfolding is its bifurcation set. This set lives in the parameter space of the unfolding, and gives all parameter values for which the resulting function has degenerate singularities.
- V. I. Arnold, S. M. Gussein-Zade & A. N. Varchenko, Singularities of differentiable maps, Volume 1, Birkhäuser, (1985).
- J. W. Bruce & P. J. Giblin, Curves & singularities, second edition, Cambridge University press, (1992).
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